Sightseeing in Russia – Church on Spilled Blood in St. Petersburg

Travel Moscow

St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow’s Red Square has 9 domes.

When you think of fabulous onion-domed cathedrals in Russia, chances are good you’re either picturing St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow, or the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood in St. Petersburg.

St. Basil’s was built in the 16th century to commemorate the Russian capture of Kazan and Astrakhan, and Napoleon’s troops stabled their horses there in 1812.

Travel St. Petersburg

Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood  has 5 domes.

Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood, aka Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, aka Church on Spilt Blood, aka Savior on Potatoes (explanation for that later, and why do the Russians have so many names for EVERYTHING?), is much newer.

But I think it has a more interesting story:

Alexander III commissioned the building in 1883 to commemorate his father who was assassinated on the site two years before – the “spilled blood” refers to that of Alexander II. The cobblestones where he was attacked are inside the church.

Alexander II was also known as Alexander the Liberator. Born in 1818, he became Tsar in 1855 and died in 1881. He may have been the biggest reformist since Peter the Great — another Tsar influenced by his European experiences.

Radical Reforms Engender Radical Revolutionaries. And Spilled Blood.

Alexander the Liberator, aka Alexander the Reformer.

Alexander the Liberator, aka Alexander the Reformer.

First, you should know that Alexander came to power during a period of extremely strict censorship. Criticism of the government was considered a crime, and socially, all Russians conformed to very rigid guidelines defined by class.

In 1855-56, he had a war to wrap up – the Crimean War, in which the Russians fought against several super powers including the Ottoman Empire, the French and the Brits. The Russians were defending the rights of Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land. Russia lost that one.

20 granite plaques along the base of the cathedral commemorate Alexander's reforms. Unfortunately they're written in Russian.

20 granite plaques along the base of the cathedral commemorate Alexander’s reforms. Unfortunately  for us they’re written in Russian.

But Alexander learned some things from the experience. After the Crimean War, he looked to expanding the railways to promote more commerce and bolster military defense.

In 1861 he emancipated the serfs – Russia was one of the last European countries to abolish feudalism. He didn’t just transform them into a peasant agricultural class dependent on landlords (sound like another form of serfdom?), but made them completely independent.

Former serfs were now able to marry without permission, to buy property and businesses, and to actually leave the property where they were born. They were also allowed to vote and sue wrongdoers. It wasn’t all good for the serfs (they didn’t have money to buy land in the first place; many were forced to borrow at extortionist interest rates), but it was a start.

Alexander II also sold Alaska to the U.S. for $7M in 1867. He realized it was too far away to defend.

In 1874 he instituted universal military conscription – all of Russia’s sons had to serve in the army or navy, whether they were nobility, gentry or peasant. Alexander also abolished corporal punishment and the branding of soldiers.

Sound pretty liberal for 19th century Russia? Perhaps he was too radical for the times, as Alexander survived five assassination attempts before the fatal one in 1881, and even that one took two tries.

Death of a Tsar; Birth of a Cathedral

Interior of Spilled Blood is filled with light.

Interior of Spilled Blood is filled with light.

On March 13, 1881, Alexander II was attending a military review in St. Petersburg, traveling in a bulletproof carriage. A member of the People’s Will threw a bomb under the wheels – the explosion killed one member of the party, and wounded many of the people on the sidewalk watching the procession.

According to my tour guide, the bomber was immediately captured, and Alexander II approached him to demand an explanation for the attempt on his life. He couldn’t understand why, after making so many reforms to better the lives of all Russians, anyone would want to kill him.

Church of Spilt Blood St. Petersburg.

Under the central dome.

That’s when a second assassin threw another bomb at the Tsar’s feet, shattering his legs, ripping open his abdomen, and disfiguring his face.

Alexander died a few hours later in the Winter Palace, just days from the 20th anniversary of the emancipation of the serfs. His plans for an elected Parliament, or Duma,  were just completed. His son Alexander III not only failed to carry out those plans for a new, more democratic government, he promptly destroyed his father’s papers. But he did build an amazing cathedral, which he never saw completed.

Church on Spilt Blood Construction

Architectural details of Church of the Spilled Blood

Narrowing this section of the canal to put the assassination site inside the church took over three years.

It took 24 years to build this monument alongside the Griboedov Canal, just off Nevsky Prospekt. Part of the canal was narrowed to accommodate the cobblestones where Alexander II suffered his fatal wounds, within the church.

Built in the Muskovy style to mimic St. Basil’s in Red Square, Russian revolutionaries looted and vandalized the church in 1917, the Soviets closed it in the 1930s, and the cathedral served as a morgue during the Second World War.

After WWII, the Russians used it as a warehouse for produce, which the locals called Savior on Potatoes. Restoration efforts began in the 70s.

Tips for Visiting Cathedral on Spilled Blood

Part of the iconostasis.

Part of the iconostasis.

1. Audio guides and group tours are available in several foreign languages.

2. There’s a tourist market outside of the cathedral, just across the street from the church’s ticket booth. My tour guide told me the quality of the merchandise was generally pretty good, but the prices were geared for tourists (outlandish by her standards).

3. On the opposite side of the cathedral, Griboedov Canal is lined with a multitude of shops and restaurants.

4. This is one of the few Russian sightseeing stops where I didn’t have to check in my coat.

Travel in Moscow – The 1812 Museum

I did not get nearly enough time in Moscow, but did manage to see parts of Red Square and The Kremlin.

Red Square - The Changing of the Guard

Red Square – The Changing of the Guard

Lenin is looking a little worse for wear. Wax museum displays look a lot more real than  he does. And don’t expect to spend more than a minute or two in his tomb.

It’s underground, Lenin’s glass coffin providing the only light. You can’t dawdle, and you can’t take pictures, plus you’ll have to check in your backpacks and purses before going in. Security guards hustle everyone in and out, lickety-split — basically you can expect to walk in, walk around and get out. So in some respects, that was a little disappointing.

Moscow’s 1812 Museum

One of my favorite places though, is the 1812 Museum.  Read “War and Peace” if you want an in-depth look at the War of 1812. It was long and preachy, but the novel gave me a good base for understanding what happened without having to delve into a history book, which is the 5th layer of hell for me.

When I asked my tour guide (hired through Tours by Locals, which I highly recommend by the way) about Tolstoy’s rather cynical views of the war, he adamantly stated, “Oh we can trust Tolstoy.” He went into an explanation of why, exactly, but it was just his very sure tone that struck me as interesting. Russian cultural pride is still running strong — more on that in a moment.

Here are some highlights from the museum, no signs in English, so I was happy to have someone to translate:

Depiction of 1807 Treaty of Tilsit.

Depiction of 1807 Treaty of Tilsit.

Napoleon and Tsar Alexander decide to team up, signing a treaty in the middle of a river at Tilsit– France agreeing to help Russia in their fight against the Ottoman Empire, and Russia agreeing to assist the French in their war against the Brits. Russia couldn’t realistically oppose Britain though, so relations with Napoleon gradually deteriorated.

Napoleon begins his campaign against Russia in June of 1812, and reaches Moscow that September. And now there’s a museum to commemorate the war, which the Russians call the Patriotic War of 1812 (don’t confuse it with the Great Patriotic War, which is how the Russians refer to WWII.)

RussianUniform1812museum

Russian army uniforms of 1812.

Russian Uniforms of 1812

Look for double-headed eagles adorning all things Russian.

Want Bonaparte’s autograph? Try stealing this specimen. And if anyone ever invents time travel, I’m making a stop to steal these seals…with these rings come great power.

NapoleonLetter1812

NapoleonSeals1812

Russian Cossacks were something like a cross between a pirate and a soldier for hire, though they had to supply their own horses, arms, etc. The army didn’t have a lot of control over them.

Nonetheless, they were given orders to slash and burn, leaving very little in the way of food and supplies for Napoleon’s Grand Army on their way to Moscow.

The peasants helped too, using what tools they had available, willingly burning the lands they worked, supplies they stored, and the homes they lived in. This is where we get into that wonderful cultural pride again!

The Russians didn’t call it the Patriotic War for nothing.

Handy weapon of the Russian Peasant

Handy weapon of the Russian peasant

Compare the above photo to French weaponry:

GenBerthierPistols1812

General Berthier’s Pistols

GenBerthier1812

General Berthier’s Ceremonial Sword

NapoleonsCannon

Napoleonic cannon. The man put his mark on everything.

You’ll see abandoned cannon everywhere around the Kremlin. They’re all neatly lined up of course, but you’ll be amazed at how much Napoleon left behind.

Watch Tower Cathedral of Christ the Savior

I found this interesting:

Behind this watchtower in the Kremlin wall, you’ll see Christ the Savior Cathedral.

This cathedral was planned in 1812 by Tsar Alexander, in thanksgiving of mother Russia’s divine rescue from the evil French.

The first version was completed in 1817, but the foundation was unstable.

A second version was consecrated in 1883.

Josef Stalin had the second cathedral dynamited in 1931, partly to use the site for a political monument, but also to recoup the gold in the dome.

After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Orthodox Church obtained permission to rebuild, but it wasn’t completed until 2000.

You’ll see lots of marble and other materials from destroyed cathedrals in metro stations throughout Moscow. What a country!

Tips for touring the 1812 Museum in Moscow:

1. Most museums, and many other public places in Russia, require you to check your coat — there are cloak rooms everywhere. The 1812 museum is no different.

2. The 1812 Museum was also exhibiting Portraits of the Tsars, if you want to attach faces to all of the interesting historical stories. Portraits can get boring, but I found it was helpful to have some visuals to keep everyone straight.

Empress Alexandra, 1852.

Empress Alexandra, 1852.

If you want to be my friend for life, I suggest you buy me this dress. Don’t forget the head piece.

Cornwall & Tintagel Castle – Living Legends

Modern Cornwall is beautiful with its ancient beginnings.

Lanyon Quoit Henge in Cornwall, and an old tin mine in the background.

Before I get into how much I loved Cornwall and all there is to see there, let me first explain why I was absolutely driven to go: Mary Stewart’s Merlin trilogy, which begins with The Crystal Cave. I re-read this every couple of years –just because it’s a damn good piece of fiction.

For those of you not familiar with this series, it’s the story of Myrrdn Emrys (Merlin) growing from socially awkward boy to powerful man-magician. And a key part of the saga occurs when Merlin orchestrates the conception of King Arthur, at Tintagel Castle.

I should probably note, this series is actually a quintet, but the magic of the story dwindles and ends in the third book…many people refer to the series as a trilogy.

But back to Cornwall, as it exists today…

Magic Rediscovered in Modern Cornwall

Lamorna Cove, Cornwall

Lamorna Cove in Cornwall

Driving southwest from Somerset and Devon, you’ll feel like you’re entering a different world. The Cornish roads are so narrow there’s only room for one vehicle at a time. If you encounter any oncoming traffic, one of the drivers will have to back up until s/he reaches a turn out to let the other car pass. (Usually, it’s the smaller vehicle that does this…)

Not only are the roads narrow though, they’re also lined with very high hedges. You’ll feel like you’re traveling through a maze sometimes.

But once you get into the more settled areas along the coast, the hedgerows disappear and the terrain becomes a lot more open. You’ll see old tin mines dotting the landscaping, and run across a henge or two.

The coastline itself is dramatic (thus the poetic “Land’s End”), with it’s bluer than blue water. Apparently there’s a high copper content in the sediment, which gives the coastal waters the blue-green hue.

Tintagel Castle Ruins: Not-so-easy Access

Expect to go for a bit of a hike to get to Tintagel Castle in Cornwall. This is the view of the mainland from Tintagel’s ruins.

And finally, there’s Tintagel Castle, where Merlin supposedly orchestrated the conception of King Arthur.

Tintagel Revisited

Now according to legend, Gorlois, the Duke of Cornwall, hid his wife Ygraine in Tintagel castle, to keep her safe from King Uther. Tintagel Castle is right on the coast, by the way. Merlin disguised Uther and led him up a narrow, treacherous path along the cliff face to gain entrance to the fortress. According to Mary Stewart, it was a dark and stormy night. Of course.

In real life, Tintagel Castle ruins lie on a small island-like land mass jutting out from the mainland and you’ll have to walk a narrow path and cross a bridge of stairs to get to them. Thankfully, the bridge is in good order and it’s a much safer trek than the one Uther supposedly made in the fifth or sixth century.

Challenging Stairs at Tintagel

It’s a rough climb up to Tintagel. But the handrails are sturdy!

Still, this is not a hike for the faint of heart. It’s a long walk, and the stairs from the bridge up to the top of the peninsular mountain where the ruins lie, are fairly steep.

Of course, the stairs aren’t comfortable to climb either, because the originals weren’t cut in ergonomic times. The newer ones are fine, but some of the older ones really challenge your sense of balance. They’re roughly hewn and dangerous.

Bridging the mainland to Tintagel Castle.

Why does this bridge remind me of a Monty Python movie?

Most people in average condition won’t have a problem, but if long walks and steep stairs really aren’t your thing, you might want to wait in the car. Go explore Tintagel Parish instead – it’s very picturesque.

Once you arrive though, the views of the Cornish coastline are well worth it. And what’s left of the castle is worth the walk too, with interesting stone structures and a few walls still standing.

The castle courtyard is probably the most interesting with its arched entryways and tiny peephole windows. You’ll also get to see a tunnel leading to a food storage area, a well, medieval graffiti, and gun fort for the latter days, among other things.

Tintagel Castle Courtyard Wall - Cornwall

Few walls still stand at Tintagel Castle. This archway is the main entrance into the courtyard.

Archaeologists date the site to 3rd or 4th century AD, and they believe the land belonged to a Celtic monastery or prince of the region. However, they’re still digging up buildings, and learning that the site was used as an ancient Mediterranean trading post as well.

TIP #1: Restrooms and snacks are available on the mainland. Be sure to take care of your bodily needs before you cross the bridge to the ruins.

TIP #2: Please DO be careful on those treacherous stairs!

Coastline around Tintagel in Cornwall.

View of Cornwall coast line from the ruins at Tintagel.